It was colonized by Timoleon in 338 B.C. with settlers from Velia in Lucania, and in the time of the tyrant Phintias (289-279) it had regained some of its power.
Its southern extremity, Calabria, forms a complete peninsula, being united to the mass of Lucania or the Basilicata by an isthmus isthmus 35 m.
The third region contained Lucania and Bruttiuin; it was bounded on the west coast by the Silarus, on the east by the Bradanus.
Here the Via Appia turned eastward towards Beneventum, while the Via Popiia continued in a south-easterly direction through the Campanian plain and thence southwards through the mountains of Lucania and Bruttii as far as Rhegium.
Under Diocletian and Maximian a road (the Via Herculia) was constructed from Aequum Tuticum to Pons Aufidi near Venusia, where it crossed the Via Appia and went on into Lucania, passing through Potentia and Grumentum, and joining the Via Popilia near Nerulum.