IBM's second successful commercial computer (the first was the 650). Introduced in 1959 and offered until 1971, the 1401 was an outstanding success. More than 12,000 systems were installed, and it was estimated that by the mid-1960s, half of the world's computers were 1401s.The 1401 had 16KB of six-bit core memory and six tape drives. All input was on punch cards, and all output was printed or punched into blank cards. There was no display screen. In 1960, IBM introduced the larger 1410 with 80KB of memory, which also ran 1401 programs.For migration later on, 1401 emulators were built into the System/360 series, IBM's first family of computers. Taken down for maintenance many hours a month while IBM service technicians cleaned and tested its innards, the 1401 was extremely reliable for its time.Stand-Alone or a PeripheralThe 1401 was used as a stand-alone computer in many companies but was also used in large enterprises as an input/output peripheral to larger IBM computers. Equipped with card readers and card punch devices, the 1401 was often used in the datacenter to transfer cards to tape and print the results from the tapes after they were updated. For a personal story relating to the 1401, see software bloat. See IBM 701, IBM 650 and System/360.