Hackers--social-characteristics definitions

Both Meyer’s 1989 study on hackers in the Computer Underground (CU) and the hacker convention attendee study conducted by Schell, Dodge, and Moutsatsos and detailed in the 2002 book The Hacking of America found these social characteristics to be present in the majority of hackers: males and females alike tend to use handles rather than real names; they are generally self-taught (although female hackers are likely to learn later and through more formal educational channels); they are selective about their collaborators; and after consulting with colleagues, they tend to act alone. Schell, B.H., Dodge, J.L., with S.S. Moutsatsos. The Hacking of America: Who’s Doing It, Why, and How. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 2002.
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