(GSM Association, Dublin, Ireland, www.gsmworld.com) A membership association founded in 1987 that promotes the development and evolution of the GSM communications standard worldwide. It represents the interests of more than 700 global network operators, manufacturers, regulator and administration bodies involved in GSM. By 2008, its members provided services to more than two billion customers. More than 400 million were connected in 2005 alone. See GSA and GSM.