Holy Roman emperor (1619–1637) and king of Bohemia (1617–1619 and 1620–1627) and Hungary (1618–1625). A leader of the Catholic Counter Reformation, he instigated the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) between Catholic and Protestant forces.
and the emperor Ferdinand II.
In Bohemia, Ferdinand II.
Under the Moors it became an independent principality, which was destroyed by Ferdinand II.
He encountered the allies at Fornovo, and after a drawn battle cut his way through them and was back in France by November; Ferdinand II.
He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage with Sforza in 1497, and, unable to arrange a union between Cesare and the daughter of Frederick, king of Naples (who had succeeded Ferdinand II.