The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) established the National Do-Not-Call Registry in 1993 as a proactive means of addressing the problem of telephone solicitation calls. Commercial telemarketers are not allowed to call a residence if the subscriber's number is on the registry, subject to certain exceptions.As a result, consumers can, if they choose, reduce the number of unwanted phone calls to their homes.The registry applies to all telemarketers (with the exception of certain non-profit organizations), and covers both interstate and intrastate telemarketing calls. A number of state governments already had such registries in place. The National Do-Not-Call Registry was extended to cellular phones in late 2004.The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act was passed in 2003, extending the ban on certain unsolicited marketing to e-mail. See also CAN-SPAM Act, FCC, FTC, telemarketing, and Telephone Consumer Protection Act.