Conducted by an individual who purposely or knowingly uses a computer, a computer system, a computer network, the Internet, or any other online communication system—particularly without proper authorization or jurisdiction—to investigate or pursue criminal activity of alleged criminals. According to model state computer crime codes in most U.S. jurisdictions, when these behaviors have occurred, an unlawful act has thus been committed, based, in large part, on the fact that a communication system has been exploited.
Brenner, S. and Cochran, R. Model State Computer Crime Codes. [Online 1999.] University of Dayton Law School Website. http://cybercrimes.net/98MSCCC/ Article8/section808.html.