Television programming sent over the air to all receivers. The initial standards were set in the United States, where broadcast TV originated. In 1945, the FCC set the initial transmission standards at 4.5 MHz, in the very high frequency (VHF) band. The National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) was formed in 1948 to standardize the characteristics of the broadcast signal. Ultimately, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), which was owned by AT&T, lobbied the Electronics Institute of America (EIA) and set the initial black-and-white TV standards. Color TV was commercialized some years later. See also narrowcast, NTSC, television, and VHF.