The countries of the Balkan Peninsula, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia, along with areas of continental Greece, southeast Romania, and European Turkey.
The large predominance of imports over exports after 1884 was a result of the falling off of the export trade in live stock, olive oil and wine, on account of the closing of the French market, while the importation of corn from Russia and the Balkan States increased considerably.
He travelled in Finland and Lapland in 1873-4, and in 1875 made a special study of archaeology and ethnology in the Balkan States.
In general the Cretan constitution is characterized by a conservative spirit, and contrasts with the ultra-democratic systems. established in Greece and the Balkan States.
In many of the Balkan states he had well-informed agents.
In 1844 he took advantage of his visit to England to propose to British ministers a plan of partition, under which Great Britain was to receive Egypt and Crete, Constantinople was to be erected into a free city, and the Balkan states were to become autonomous under Russian protection.