(1) Translating data and commands from the format of one application into the format of another. It is essentially data and command conversion on an ongoing basis between two or more incompatible systems. Implementing application integration has traditionally been done by tedious programming, or occasionally one package might support the interfaces of one or two other packages. However, the trend today is to use message brokers, applications servers and other specialized integration products that provide a common connecting point. Since the advent of the Web, these pre-packaged "middleware" solutions have become widely used to Web enable the enterprise. See messaging middleware, middleware, application server, integration server and application adapter.
(2) Redesigning disparate information systems into one system that uses a common set of data structures and rules.