I, End of hydroid of the thalloid Liverwort Blyttia, showing the thick lignified wall penetrated by simple pits.
The whole of the middle lamella or originally formed cell-wall separating one from another disappears before the adult state is reached, so that the walls of the hydroids consist of a framework of lignified bars, with open communication between the cell cavities.
In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.
The former often has its cells lignified, and may consist of alternate layers of hard and soft cells.
Woody or lignified cell-walls appear to contain substances called conifer-in and vanillin, in addition to various other compounds which are imperfectly known.