Commonly known as "Wi-Fi," the IEEE 802.11 standards provide the wireless counterpart to Ethernet, and the Wi-Fi Alliance certifies products. All versions use OFDM encoding except for the earlier 802.11b, which uses DSSS (see OFDM and spread spectrum). For details about each standard, see table below and 802.11 versions.Infrastructure and Ad Hoc ModesIn "infrastructure" mode, Wi-Fi devices transmit to an "access point" (base station), which may be a stand-alone unit or built into a wireless router. In "ad hoc" mode, two wireless devices communicate peer-to-peer without an access point in between. Another direct connection mode is also available (see Wi-Fi Direct).Throughput VariesSpeed is distance dependent. The farther away the device from the base station, the lower the speed. Also, the actual throughput is generally half of the rated speed because 802.11 uses collision "avoidance" (see CSMA/CA) rather than Ethernet's collision "detection" method (see CSMA/CD). For example, a rated 54 Mbps may yield 27 Mbps in real data throughput. For more about Wi-Fi networks, see wireless LAN and Wi-Fi. See Wi-Fi hotspot, 802.11 timeline, wireless router, ISM band, 802.16 and 802.15. 802.11 SPECIFICATIONS Max Indoor Channel Bands Speed Range* Width (GHz) (Mbps) (ft) (MHz)11ac 5 433*** 230 20/40/80/160 11n 2.4, 5 150** 230 20/40 11a 5 54 95 20 11g 2.4 54 170 20 11b 2.4 11 150 20 * = Up to 4x farther outdoors. ** = Per antenna at 40 MHz channels. *** = Per antenna at 80 MHz channels.
The family of IEEE standards describing the over-the-air interfaces for a number of wireless local area networks (WLANs).Variously referred to in the vernacular as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) and Wireless Ethernet (the Ethernet CSMA/CA protocol is used in 802.11), 802.11 standards include infrared (IR) and radio frequency (RF) solutions, although there currently appear to be no practical applications for IR.The RF standards fall into the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz ISM bands and offer theoretical bandwidth up to 54 Mbps. The original 802.11 standard (1997) operated in the 2.4 GHz band and supported theoretical data rates up to 2 Mbps. This early standard included a great number of options, which made interoperability of products difficult, or at least uncertain. As a result, 802.11 never gained any real traction in the market. Soon afterward, however, much improved extensions to 802.11 were finalized, and WLANs quickly gained in popularity. Current extensions include 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g. Still under development is 802.11n. See also 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, CSMA/CA, Ethernet, IEEE, ISM, RF, Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi5, and WLAN.