Clover, lucerne and sainfoin make up the bulk of artificial pasturage, while vetches, crimson clover and cabbage are the other chief forage crops.
The temporary includes vetches, pulse, lupine, clover and trifolium; and the perennial, meadow-trefoil, lupinella, sulla (fledysarum coronarium), lucerne and darnel.
The Emilian region is one where regular rotations are best observeda common shift being grain, maize, clover, beans and vetches, &c., grain, which has the disadvantage of the grain crops succeeding, each other.
Lupine, beans, peas and vetches were grown for fodder, and meadows, often artificially watered, supplied hay.
Either let the land lie fallow every other year or else let spelt follow pulse, vetches or lupine.