Between the ranges in the high plateau north to 27° are numerous isolated volcanoes which have been in activity in recent times, such as Peinado (18,898 ft.), San Pedro (18,701), Antuco (19,029), Antofalla (20,014), Rincon (17,881), Pastos Grandes (17,553), Zapalegui (17553), Suniguira (19,258), Tahue (17,458); volcanoes which have been elevated from a lacustrine basin, which very recently occupied the whole extension, and the remains of which are, in the south, the Laguna Verde, at 28°, and in the north Lake Titicaca.
SUDAN (Arabic Bilad-es-Sudan, country of the blacks), that region of Africa which stretches, south of the Sahara and Egypt, from Cape Verde on the Atlantic to Massawa on the Red Sea.
From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka, a little west of Cape Blanc, in 37°21' N., to the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas, 34° 51' 15" S., is a distance approximately of 5000 m.; from Cape Verde, 17° 33' 22" W., the westernmost point, to Ras Hafun, 51° 27' 52" E., the most easterly projection, is a distance (also approximately) of 4600 m.
North-west coast are the Canary and Cape Verde archipelagoes, which, like some small islands in the Gulf of Guinea, are of volcanic origin.
Thus Diniz Diaz, Nuno Tristam, and others reached the Senegal in 1445; Diaz rounded Cape Verde in the same year; and in 1446 Alvaro Fernandez pushed on almost to our Sierra Leone, to a point 10 leagues beyond Cape Verde.