The revocation of the edict of Nantes vitiated thi-ough a fatal contradiction all the efforts of the latter to create new manufactures; the country was impoverished for tht1 benefit of the foreigner to such a point that economic conditions began to alarm those private persons most noted for their talents, their character, or their regard for the public welfare; such as La Bruyre and Fnelon in 1692, Bois-Guillebert in 1697 and Vauban In.
All the more remarkable spirits of the time, like prophets in Israel, denounced a tyranny which put Chamillart at the head of the finances because he played billiards well, and Villeroy in command of the armies although he was utterly untrustworthy; which sent the patriot Vauban into disgrace, banished from the court Catinat, the Pre Ia Pense, exiled to Cambrai the too clear sighted Fnelon, and suspected Racine of Jansenism and La Fontaine of independence.
The pentagonal citadel constructed by Vauban in1682-1684was destroyed during the siege of 1870.
The Nive, a beautiful river of the Basque country, takes its rise in Spain; after flowing past St Jean-Pied-de-Port, formerly capital of French Navarre and fortified by Vauban to guard the pass of Roncevaux, it joins the Adour at Bayonne.
The fort, subsequently rebuilt on the Vauban principle, and a moat, designed to form a semicircle: round the town, and to be connected at both ends with the river, but never completed, combined with the natural position of Calcutta to render it one of the safest places for trade in India during the expiring struggles of the Mogul empire.