A city of southeast Turkey near the Syrian border. Founded as Edessa in ancient times, it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1637 and renamed Urfa. It is a trade center in a rich agricultural region.x
- Here the Belikh (Bilechas) joins the Euphrates, flowing southward through the biblical Aram Naharaim from Urfa (Edessa) and Harran (Carrhae); and from this point to el-IKaim four days' below Deir, the course of the river is south-easterly.
- The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
- Urhai, modern Urfa), where, in all probability, the chief Syriac versions of the Bible were made.
- The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.
- The Shammar have been in undisputed mastery from Urfa to the neighbourhood of Bagdad, practically all tribes paying khuwwa to them, and even the towns, till the government garrisoned them.