Wellhausen, in his excellent book Das arabische Reich and sein Stiirz, has made it very probable that the decision of the umpires was that the choice of Ali as caliph should be cancelled, and that the task of nominating a successor to Othman should be referred to the council of notable men (shura), as representing the whole community.
In the manufacturing towns of France, there are also boards of umpires (Conseils de Prud'hommes) to deal with trade disputes between masters and workmen belonging to certain specified trades.
Rashid, renounced him altogether, because he had not submitted to the decision of the umpires, and persuaded many others to refuse the payment of the poor-rate.
The Polish gentry were still the umpires as well as the stake-holders; the best candidates generally won the day; and the defeated competitors were driven out of the country by force of arms if they did not take their discomfiture, after a fair fight, like sportsmen.
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