The lower terrace of this great mountainous region, with elevations ranging from loon to 1500 ft., is in reality the western margin of the great Argentine plain, and may be traced from Oran (1017 ft.) near the Bolivian frontier southward through Tucuman (1476 ft.), Frias (1129 ft.), Cordoba (1279 ft.), Rio Cuarto (1358 ft.), Paunero (1250 ft.), and thence westward and southward through still unsettled regions to the Rio Negro at the confluence of the Neuquen and Limay.
In Tucuman and eastern Salta the same division into forests and open plains exists, but the former are of denser growth and contain walnut, cedar, laurel, tipa (Machaerium fertile) and quebracho-colorado (Loxopterygium Lorentzii).
The names, area and population of the provinces and territories are as follows: The principal towns, with estimated population for 1905, are as follows: Buenos Aires (1,025,653), Rosario (129,121), La Plata (85,000), Tucuman (55,000), Cordoba (43,000), Sante Fe (33, 200), Mendoza (32,000), Parana.
In the provinces of Tucuman, Salta and Jujuy the main industry is sugar growing and manufacture.
In 1553 an expedition from Peru made their way through the mountain region and founded the city of Santiago del Estero, that of Tucuman in 1565, and that of Cordoba in 1573.
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