Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
The collar is formed of thistles, alternating with sprigs of rue, and the motto is Nemo me impune lacessit.
The leaves of the involucre are spiny in thistles and in teazel (Dipsacus), and hooked in burdock.
Geese and cranes, chicory, mildew, thistles, cleavers, caltrops, darnel and shade are farmer's enemies.
Among the advantages of enclosures, he observes, " you will gain much more labour from your servants, a great part of whose time was taken up in gathering thistles and other garbage for their horses to feed upon in their stables; and thereby the great trampling and pulling up and other destruction of the corns while they are yet tender will be prevented."