- ancient city in S Egypt, on the Nile, on the site of modern Luxor and Karnak
- chief city of ancient Boeotia, EC Greece
- An ancient city of Upper Egypt on the Nile River in present-day central Egypt. It flourished from the mid-22nd to the 18th century BC as a royal residence and a religious center for the worship of Amun. Its archaeological remains include many splendid temples and the tomb of Tutankhamun in the nearby Valley of the Kings.
- An ancient city of Boeotia in east-central Greece northwest of Athens. Originally a Mycenaean city, it reached the height of its power in the fourth century BC but was largely destroyed by Alexander in 336.