In France the Comtian tradition was maintained with important reservations and the abandonment of the religious aspect by Littre (q.v.), Taine and others.
In a volume entitled Taine, historien de la Revolution frail gaise (1908), Aulard has submitted the method of the eminent philosopher to a criticism, severe, perhaps even unjust, but certainly well-informed.
Taine in Les Philosophes (Paris, 1868), pp. 79-202.
The work was in fact the first attempt to substitute for the popular representations of Thiers and Lamartine the critical investigation which has been carried on with such brilliance by Taine and Sorel.
He belonged to the school of Thucydides and Gibbon, not to that of Macaulay and Taine; he deals by preference with the rulers and leaders of the world, and he strictly limits his field to the history of the state, or, as we should say, political history; and in this he is followed by Seeley, one of the greatest of his adherents.