Stubbs, Lectures on Medieval and Modern History (3rd ed., Oxford, 1900).
Justiciarius meant simply "judge," and was originally applied, as Stubbs points out (Const.
Thus from a document of uncertain date, possibly about the time of Alfred the Great, and translated by Stubbs (Select Charters) as "Of people's ranks and laws," we learn:--"And if a ceorl throve, so that he had fully five hides of his own land, church and kitchen, bellhouse and burh-gate-seat, and special duty in the king's hall, then was he thenceforth of thegn-right worthy."
But, like all other words of the kind, the word thegn was slowly changing its meaning, and, as Stubbs says (Const.
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