(Fritz Mtiller.) The antennae have a spiniform or hooked masticatory process at the base, and share with the mandibles, which have a similar process, the function of seizing and masticating the food.
The posterolateral angles of the gena are commonly produced into spiniform processes, which may project backwards beyond the middle of the body as in Paradoxides, or considerably beyond its posterior termination as in Trinucleus or Ampyx.
In its simplest form this is a hollow flask-shaped horny piece, consisting of a dilated basal portion and a terminal spiniform portion with an orifice at the apex; but its structure is frequently complicated by accessory processes and outgrowths which aid copulation and serve to protect the delicate point from injury.
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