Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.
In the spring Banks was ordered to move against Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley, but the latter with superior forces defeated him at Winchester, Virginia, on the 25th of May, and forced him back to the Potomac river.
Roanoke is served by the Virginian railway, by the main line and the Shenandoah and the Winston-Salem divisions of the Norfolk & Western railway, and by electric railway to Vinton and to Salem.
He was later appointed a general officer of the Confederacy, and assigned to the command of the Army of the Shenandoah, being opposed by the Federal army under Patterson.
When McDowell advanced upon the Confederate forces under Beauregard at Manassas, Johnston moved from the Shenandoah Valley with great rapidity to Beauregard's assistance.