A Chinese dynasty (traditionally dated 1766-1122 BC) whose second capital was present-day Anyang. The dynasty's reign was marked by a complex social structure, the development of a written language, and the use of bronze.
There are four rivers of some importance in the province: the Pei-ho, with the Hun-ho, which rises in the mountains in Mongolia and, flowing to the west of Peking, forms a junction with the Pei-ho at Tientsin; the Shang-si-ho, which rises in the mountains on the north of the province of Shan-si, and takes a south-easterly course as far as the neighbourhood of Ki Chow, from which point it trends north-east and eventually joines the Hun-ho some 15 m.
Above Tientsin; the Pu-to-ho, which rises in Shan-si, and after running a parallel course to Shang-si-ho on the south, empties itself in the same way into the Hun-ho; and the Lan-ho, which rises in Mongolia, enters the province on the north-east after passing to the west of Jehol, passes the city of Yung-Ong Fu in its course (which is south-easterly) through Chih-li, and from thence winds its way to the north-eastern boundary of the Gulf of Chih-li.
The latter went to Nari (Mngari) and founded the .capital Purang; he left three sons, of whom the eldest declared himself king of Mang-yul, the second seized Purang, and the youngest, Detsud-gan, became king of the province of Shang-shung (the modern Gughe).