- A city of northwest Argentina west of Córdoba. Founded in 1562, it was moved to its present site in the 1590s.
- The capital and largest city of Puerto Rico, in the northeast part of the island on the Atlantic Ocean. Settled by Ponce de León in 1508–1509, it was attacked by English buccaneers in the 1590s and sacked by the Dutch in 1625. American forces took control of the city during the Spanish-American War (1898).