Naphthyridines and naphthinolines result from the condensation of two pryridine and two quinoline nuclei respectively; and quino-quinolines are unsymmetrical naphthyridine nuclei condensed with a benzene nucleus.
The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazoand amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds.
Acetoacetic ester is a most important synthetic reagent, having been used in the production of pyridines, quinolines, pyrazolones, furfurane, pyrrols, uric acid, and many complex acids and ketones.
Decker (Ber., 9 5, 38, p. 1144) has found that many ortho substituted quinolines will not combine with methyl iodide owing to steric hindrance, but the difficulty can be overcome in most cases by using methyl sulphate and heating the reaction components to ioo C. for half an hour.
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