The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition Copyright © 2010 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
A city of central Kazakhstan southeast of Astana. Founded in 1857 as a copper-mining settlement, it is now the center of a coal industry. Population: 429,000.