The pustules on the surface are due to fructifications, pycnidia and spermagonia.
Moller also in 1887 succeeded in growing small lichen-thalli without their algal constituent (gonidia) on nutritive solutions; in the case of Calicium pycnidia were actually produced under these conditions.
In one view they are mere asexual conidia, and the term pycnoconidia is accordingly applied since they are borne in structures like the non-sexual pycnidia of other fungi.
Forms of which we only know certain stages, such as conidia, pycnidia, &c., and which there are reasons for regarding as merely the corresponding stages of higher forms. Saccardo also included about 400 species of Myxomycetes and 650 of Schizomycetes.
Similarly with the various types of conidial or oidial "fructifications," termed pycnidia, spermogonia, aecidia, &c. In the simplest of these cases - e.g.
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