Pupin showed that by placing inductance coils in circuit, at distances apart of less than half the length of the shortest component wave to be transmitted, a non-uniform conductor could be made approximately equal to a uniform conductor.
Many circuits have been " loaded " in the manner proposed by Pupin during recent years, especially in underground cables, and it has been found in practice that the transmission value of these when loaded is approximately from three to four times their value unloaded.
Attempts have been made to improve submarine cables in this respect, and in 1906 a short cable " loaded " with Pupin coils was laid across Lake Constance.
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