Of the families Belo- stomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae and Hydrometridae have a pulsating sac at each knee-joint to assist the flow of blood through the legs, while in dragon-flies and locusts (Acridazdae) there is a ventral pulsating dia phragm, which forms the roof of a sinus enclosing the nerve-cords.
The smaller duff is separated by vibrating or rotating screens into a great number of sizes, which are cleaned by washing in continuous current or pulsating jigging machines, where the lighter coal rises to the surface and is removed by a stream of water, while the heavier waste falls and is discharged at a lower level, or through a valve at the bottom of the machine.
Thus both invertebrate and vertebrate palaeontologists have reached independently the conclusion that the evolution of groups is not continuously at a uniform rate, but that there are, especially in the beginnings of new phyla or at the time of acquisition of new organs, sudden variations in the rate of evolution which have been termed variously " rhythmic," "pulsating," " efflorescent," "intermittent " and even " explosive " (Deperet).
Oedogonium sp., intercalated growth by insertion of new piece(a) n., nucleus; p.v., pulsating vacuoles; e.s., eyespot.
This system of course requires that the exchange equipment shall include machines _ capable of delivering a positive pulsating current and a negative pulsating current, besides the usual alternations required for the ringing of ordinary subscribers.