From Bogota the Spaniards constructed two partially-paved highways, one leading down to the Magdalena in the vicinity of Honda, while the other passed down into the upper valley of the same river in a south-westerly direction, over which communication was maintained with Popayan and other settlements of southern Colombia and Ecuador.
There are woollen mills at Popayan and Pasto, and small cigar-making industries at Ambalema and Palmira.
Popayan is built on a great plain sloping N.W.
Popayan is the seat of a bishopric dating from 1547, whose cathedral was built by the Jesuits; and in the days of its prosperity it possessed a university of considerable reputation.
Earthquakes have also caused much damage to Popayan, especially those of 1827 and 1834.