Referring to the physical connection of a communications cable or antenna used to provide communications services to a pole or in an underground conduit (even though there is no pole involved). In consideration of the substantial capital and maintenance costs associated with poles and their impact on limited network access corridors (easements, and rights of way), sharing of poles is considered essential. Prior to the emergence of the cable television (CATV) industry in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, telephone companies and electric companies entered into reciprocal arrangements for shared pole usage. As the number of providers needing the pole resource has expanded, governments have established regulations regarding sharing of this critical infrastructure that may include local governments, which, in turn, may need to attach street lights, traffic lights, traffic counters, and other devices to utility poles. CATV providers also are allowed to attach cables to poles owned by telcos and power utilities, as are providers of wireless services such as Wi-Fi and WiMAX. The costs for such pole attachments are a subject of much controversy. In the United States, for example, there are not only different formulas for calculating costs for telephone companies and CATV providers to attach to power poles, but also different sets of laws that may apply to these assets, depending on the legal definition of the pole-owning entity (e.g., private, government-owned, or cooperatively organized) and the state in which these assets are located, among other things. See also conduit, easement, pole, Pole Attachment Act, right of way, Wi-Fi, and WiMAX.