- Papua New Guinea
- arm of the Coral Sea, on the SE coast of New Guinea: c. 225 mi (362 km) wide
- former United Nations trust territory that was administered by Australia, consisting of the SE section of New Guinea and the nearby islands
- province of Indonesia, occupying the W half of the island of New Guinea: a Dutch territory until 1963: c. 141,107 sq mi (365,466 sq km); cap. Jayapura
- The southern part of what is now called Papua New Guinea, formerly administered as a separate territory to New Guinea.
From Malay Papua, from pepuah (“curly (of hair)") for the natives of the island.