From the Caspian to Karachi it is possible to pass without encountering any orographic obstacle greater than the divide which separates the valley of the Hari Rud from the Helmund hamun basin, which may be represented by an altitude of about 4000 ft.
In the case of general maps on a smaller scale, the orographic features must be generalized by a skilful draughtsman and artist.
The border-ridge character of the Sayans (Ergik-targak-taiga) is well established, and the same orographic character is confirmed by recent explorers with regard to the Sailughem range of the Altai.
The supreme orographic importance of this great Central Asian mountain system was recognized in a fashion even by the geographers of ancient Greece.
While it is throughout essentially a mountainous country, very complicated in its orographic features and interlocking river systems, two principal mountain axes form its ruling features - the Rocky Mountains proper, above referred to, and the Coast Ranges.