Reported problems include obsessive/compulsive behaviors, depression, temper tantrums and violent outbursts, and tendencies to be argumentative, oppositional, rigid, manipulative, possessive, and stubborn.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), a relatively new clinical classification, involves an ongoing pattern of antagonistic, defiant, and hostile behavior toward parents and other authority figures.
Parents of a child with a serious behavior disorder like oppositional defiant disorder should work with their child's therapist to deal with encopresis in the context of other behavioral problems.
To give another example, such temperamental traits as irritability and strong negative reactivity are thought to contribute to the development of oppositional defiant disorder in some children.
Psychiatrists consider truancy one of many symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or the more serious diagnosis of conduct disorder, especially when truancy begins before age 13.