Vicuna Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), giving a useful account of the revolutionary struggle and the main actors; and the same author's Historia jeneral de la republics de Chile, a collection of essays on the early republican history by various writers.
The second most important mining industry in Chile, however, is that of copper, which is found in the provinces of Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Aconcagua, Valparaiso, Santiago, O'Higgins, Colchagua, Curico and Talca, but the richest deposits are in the three desert provinces.
For three years the Spaniards maintained their hold on Chile, ruling the country with tyrannical harshness, but in the spring of 1817 a patriot force which had been organized at Mendoza in the Argentine by Jose de San Martin, an Argentine officer, and by O'Higgins, crossed the Andes and overwhelmed the royalists at the battle of Chacabuco.
O'Higgins was named director-general of Chile, while San Martin, realizing that the independence of each colony depended on the Spanish being expelled from the whole of South America, set about preparing an invasion of Peru.
By this battle the independence of Chile, formally proclaimed by O'Higgins in the previous February, was finally secured.