A city of western Russia on the Volga River west of Kazan. Founded as a frontier post in 1221, it was formerly famous for its trade fairs. The city was renamed Gorky from 1932 until 1990 in honor of Maksim Gorky, who was born here in 1868.x
Of the city of Vladimir by the railway from Moscow to Nizhniy-Novgorod, and on the Klyazma River.
Of the town of, Nizhniy-Novgorod, on the Tesha river, at its junction with the Arsha.
Nizhniy-Novgorod had at one time two academies, Greek and Slav, and took some part in the literary movement of the end of the 18th century; its theatre also was of some importance in the history of the Russian stage.
The situation, however, being in many ways inconvenient, and a conflagration having destroyed the shops at Makaryev, the fair was transferred in 1817 to its present locality at Nizhniy-Novgorod.
It is the chief entrepot for grain from the basin of the lower Oka, and carries on an active trade with Moscow and Nizhniy-Novgorod.