A country of central Asia in the Himalaya Mountains between India and southwest China. Site of a flourishing civilization by the 4th century A.D. , the region was later divided into principalities, one of which, Gurkha, became dominant in the 18th century. Gurkha's expansion into northern India led to border wars with Great Britain. A 1923 treaty affirmed Nepal's full sovereignty, and a constitutional monarchy was established in 1951. Katmandu is the capital and the largest city. Population: 28,900,000.