PHYLARCHUS, a Greek historian, who flourished during the time of Aratus, the strategus of the Achaean League, in the 3rd century B.C. His birthplace is variously given as Athens, Naucratis, or Sicyon.
He was probably a native of Naucratis, and subsequently migrated to Athens.
In 1881 he began a long series of important surveys and excavations in Egypt, beginning with the pyramids at Giza, and following up his work there by excavations at the great temple at Tanis (1884), and discovering and exploring the long-lost Greek city of Naucratis in the Delta (1885), and the towns of Am and Daphnae (1886), where he found important remains of the time when they were inhabited by the Pharaohs.
Imported vases from the Aegean, of the " Dipylon," " proto-Corinthian " and " Rhodian " fabrics, occur rarely, " and were imitated by the native potters; and early in the 6th century appears the specific influence of Ionia, and still more of Naucratis in the Egyptian delta.
Besides the excavations of Athens, Delos, Epidaurus and Delphi, the results of which are most important for the 5th century B.C. and later, the exploration of the sites of Olympia, of the Heraeum near Argos, of Naucratis in Egypt, and of various Cretan towns (above all the ancient Gortyn), has revolutionized our knowledge of the archaic alphabets of Greece.