country in the NW Balkan Peninsula, bordering on the Adriatic: formerly a kingdom and (1946–2003) a constituent republic of Yugoslavia and (2003–06) of Serbia and Montenegro: 5,415 sq mi (14,026 sq km); cap. Podgorica
A country of the western Balkan Peninsula bordering on the Adriatic Sea. An ancient Balkan state, it was at various times under Ottoman Muslim and theocratic Christian rule before becoming an independent kingdom (1910–1918). Montenegro then joined the newly formed Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became Yugoslavia after 1929. In 1991, four of the six Yugoslav republics declared independence, leaving Montenegro and Serbia as the sole constituents of a reorganized federal republic. Yugoslavia changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro in 2003 and dissolved the union altogether in 2006. Podgorica is the capital and largest city.
The northern boundary of Albania underwent some alteration in consequence of the enlargement of Montenegro, sanctioned by the Berlin Treaty (July 13, 1878); owing to subsequent arrangements providing for the cession of Dulcigno to Montenegro (November 25, 1880) in exchange for the districts of Plava and Gusinye, restored to Turkey, the frontier-line (finally settled December 1884) now ascends the Boyana from its mouth to Lake Sass (Shas), thence passes northward, and crossing Lake Scutari separates the district of Kutch Kraina on the N.
During the next half-century several local revolts occurred, but no movement of a strictly political character took place till after the Berlin Treaty (July 13, 1878), when some of the Moslems and Catholics combined to resist the stipulated transference of Albanian territory to Austria-Hungary, Servia and Montenegro, and the Albanian League was formed by an assemblage of chiefs at Prizren.
The movement, which was instigated by the Porte with the object of evading the provisions of the treaty, was so far successful that the restoration .of Playa and Gusinye to Albania was sanctioned by the powers, Montenegro receiving in exchange the town and district of Dulcigno.
Default in the public funds and an empty treasury, the insurrection in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, the war with Servia and Montenegro, the feeling aroused throughout Europe by the methods adopted in stamping out the Bulgarian rebellion, all combined to prove to the new sultan that he could expect little aid from the Powers.
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