In all things political it was purely despotic; in all things commercial, it was purely monopolist.
Great loss was necessarily inflicted on native traders by the monopolist system, which pressed most hardly on the Mahommedans, who had been the chief carriers in Indian waters.
The Oldembourg Company (1754) received a monopoly of trade with the Portuguese colonies in the East; extensive monopolist rights were also conceded to the Path and Maranhao Company (1755) and the Pernambuco and Parahyba Company (1759).
As presidential nominee of the Greenback and Anti-Monopolist parties, he polled 175,370 votes in 1884, when he had bitterly opposed the nomination by the Democratic party of Grover Cleveland, to defeat whom he tried to "throw" his own votes in Massachusetts and New York to the Republican candidate.
Here too h~ had no preconceived ideas; the royal and monopolist companies were never for him an end but a means; and after much experimenting he at length attained success.