- region & former principality in E Europe, east of the Carpathians: merged with Walachia (1861) to form Romania
- Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
- A historical region of eastern Romania east of Transylvania. Part of the Roman province of Dacia, it became a principality in the 1300s and passed to the Ottoman Empire in 1504, although it was continually attacked and often controlled by other powers. In 1862, Moldavia united with Wallachia to form the nucleus of modern Romania.
- See Moldova.