The principal centres of disturbance are in the valley of the Agusan, in the region of Mayon volcano, in the region of Taal volcano, on Masbate Island, and along the north shore of Luzon.
In Masbate, Panay, Guimaras and Negros there is a dark-coloured species marked with buff spots.
The water-buffalo, or caraboa, occurs in a wild state in Luzon, Mindoro, the Calamianes group, Masbate, Negros and Mindanao, but the wild herds are believed to have originated from domesticated animals.
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