The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.
The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.
The armature is placed between the poles of the electromagnet, and being magnetized by the magnet m it will oscillate to the right or left under the action of the poles of the electromagnet M according as the current passes through M in one direction or the other.
These tongues are magnetized by the inducing action of a strong horse-shoe permanent magnet, S N, which is made in a curved shape for the sake of compactness.
Owing to hysteresis the part of the band magnetized is not symmetrically placed with regard to the magnetic poles, but advanced in the direction of motion of the band.
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