, James 1751–1836.
The fourth president of the United States (1809–1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780–1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787–1788), which argued for the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
portrait by George Peter Alexander Healy