Of the towns of Poland 32 have a population each exceeding 10,000, the largest being Warsaw the capital, with 638,208 inhabitants in 1897 and 756,426 in 1901; Lodz, with 315,209 in 1897 and 35 1, 57 0 in 1900; Czenstochowa, with 45,130 in 1897 and 53,650 in 1900; and Lublin, with 50,152 in 1897.
The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.
The principal industrial centres are Lodz (textiles), Warsaw (sugar, leather and miscellaneous) and Bendzin - Sosnowice - Dombrowa, in Piotrkow (mining).
Cotton is the principal product of the mills at Lodz and Lask, both in Piotrkow; though woollen cloth, silk and linen are also produced.
The principal centre is Lodz in the government of Piotrkow, the staple industry being cottons.