Slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
The mountain valleys are covered with little except grasses; on the higher parts of the mountains there are barren rocks or only a scant growth of timber; but many of the lower mountain slopes, especially those along the western border, are clothed with heavy timber, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and western larch being the principal species.
The principal trees, after the yellow and lodgepole pines, are the red-fir, so-called hemlock and cedar, the Engelmann spruce, the cottonwood and the aspen (Populus tremuloides).
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