- The general character of the country is mountainous, though none of the ranges attains to any great elevation, and Kinabalu, the highest peak in the island, which is situated near its north-western extremity, is only 13,698 ft.
- This chain can hardly be said to extend continuously to the extreme north of the island, but it carries on the line of elevation towards the mountains of Sarawak to the west, and those of British North Borneo to the north, of which latter Kinabalu is the most remarkable.
- Of this range the central feature is the mountain of Kinabalu, which is composed of porphyritic granite and igneous rocks and attains to a height of 13,698 ft.
- On the east coast the principal rivers are the Sugut, which rises in the hills to the east of Kinabalu and forms 'its delta near Torongohok or Pura-Pura Island; the Labuk, which has its sources 70 m.
- The Australian flora has extensions at high levels in the tropics; such exists on Kinabalu in Borneo under the equator.