The inspiration of early belief has disappeared; the ruling motive of the mollahs (priests) is the thirst for personal enrichment, and the people no longer follow the khojas or theologians.
They created in East Turkestan the power of the khojas, or "theologians," who afterwards fomented the many intestine wars that were waged between the rival factions of the White and the Black Mountaineers.
These struggles paved the way for a Chinese invasion, which was supported by the White khojas of Kashgar.
Hereupon the dissentient khojas fled to Khokand in West Turkestan, and there gathered armies of malcontents and fanatic followers of Islam.
After the "rebellion of the seven khojas" in 1847 nearly 20,000 families from Kashgar, Yarkand and Ak-su fled to West Turkestan through the Terek-davan pass, many of them perishing on the way.